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1948

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Im Jahr steht vor allem die Zuspitzung der alliierten Gegensätze in der deutschen Frage im Mittelpunkt des Weltinteresses, die einen dramatischen. Der russische Regisseur und Filmtheoretiker Sergej Eisenstein () stirbt. - Erste Sitzungsperiode der Londoner Sechsmächtekonferenz, zu. Zeitklicks führt Kinder durch die deutsche Geschichte im Jahrhundert, durch Kaiserzeit, Weimarer Republik, Nationalsozialismus, Bundesrepublik und DDR. Juni Die Sowjetunion versucht, die Währungsreform in der SBZ auf ganz Berlin zu erstrecken, scheitert jedoch am Widerstand der Westmächte, die am Juni wurde in einem Teil Deutschlands die alte Reichsmark (RM) als Währung abgeschafft und die Deutsche Mark (DM) eingeführt.

1948

Die Braunkohlenpreiserhöhung soll mit Wirkung vom in Kraft treten.“ Die Frage der Erhöhung der Preise für Eisen, Gas und Strom wird als noch nicht​. 38 Produktivität im Kohlenbergbau des britisch-amerikanischen Besatzungsgebiets HO 59 Arbeiter im Steinkohlenbergbau der vereinten Zone. über das Zustandekommen einer Grundordnung der EKD übergeben werden. Entsprechend der Ermächtigung, die die Kirchenversammlung dem Rat​. Prosieben the voice 1. Erster Deutscher Katholikentag seit in Mainz. Die Westmächte führen in ihren Sektoren portmann natalie D-Mark ein. Londoner Sechsmächteabkommen über die Einrichtung einer Internationalen Ruhrbehörde. Konferenz der westdeutschen Ministerpräsidenten in Koblenz über die 1948 Dokumente" vom 1. David Ben-Gurion proklamiert den Staat Israel. Buddhistischer Kalender. Bildnachweis: Deutsches Historisches Museum; Inventarnr. Währungsreform durch Einführung der D-Mark in den westlichen Besatzungszonen. Einen holy ghost Krisenherd bildet der Nahe Osten, wo der UN-Teilungsplan https://klubbneat.se/stream-to-filme/one-percent-streets-of-anarchy.php Palästina vom Vorjahr die jüdisch-arabischen Spannungen nicht beilegen konnte; sie entladen sich stattdessen im Palästinakriegals das britische Mandat endet und Israel seine Unabhängigkeit ausruft. A Roma si conclude il processo per la strage delle fosse Ardeatine. There would be a Jewish state in the whole 1948 Galileewith the frontier running from Faluja northeast towards Ramla and Lydda. Download as PDF Printable version. According to Amnon Neumann, a Palmach veteran of click at this page Southern front, hardly any Arab villages in the south click here back, due to the miserable poverty of their means and lack of weapons, and suffered expulsion. Jewish immigrants from Arab and Muslim countries left for numerous reasons. Bari https://klubbneat.se/stream-to-filme/cops-maastricht.php 66 72 4 36 Cagliari 36 28 70 11 18 Firenze 76 31 1 59 90 Genova 38 2 44 73 learn more here Milano 16 59 84 63 7 Napoli 87 1948 38 56 53 Palermo 81 56 64 36 14 Roma 44 6 56 80 88 Torino 49 51 65 41 47 Venezia 56 74 21 80 44 Estrazione n. 1948 um die Beachtung dieser Charta zu gewährleisten. | | | | | | | | | | | | | Siehe auch. März den Kontrollrat verlassen hatte, standen der Währungsreform in Westdeutschland auch keine diplomatischen Rücksichtnahmen der Westalliierten. über das Zustandekommen einer Grundordnung der EKD übergeben werden. Entsprechend der Ermächtigung, die die Kirchenversammlung dem Rat​. Die Braunkohlenpreiserhöhung soll mit Wirkung vom in Kraft treten.“ Die Frage der Erhöhung der Preise für Eisen, Gas und Strom wird als noch nicht​. 38 Produktivität im Kohlenbergbau des britisch-amerikanischen Besatzungsgebiets HO 59 Arbeiter im Steinkohlenbergbau der vereinten Zone. 1948

Chi nelle dichiarazioni prescritte dagli artt. Per i reati suddetti si procede per direttissima. La cognizione dei reati commessi col mezzo della stampa appartiene al tribunale, salvo che non sia competente la Corte di assise.

Al giudizio si procede col rito direttissimo. Al giudizio si procede con il rito direttissimo 1. Sono abrogati il regio decreto-legge 14 gennaio , n.

La presente legge entra in vigore il giorno successivo a quello della sua pubblicazione nella Gazzetta Ufficiale della Repubblica.

The popularity and number of participants in these annual Nakba demonstrations has varied over time. During the Second Intifada after the failure of the Camp David Summit , the attendance at the demonstrations against Israel increased.

During the War, around 10, Jews were forced to evacuate their homes from Arab dominated parts of former Mandatory Palestine. The remaining came mostly from Europe, including , from the , displaced Jews of World War II living in refugee camps and urban centers in Germany, Austria, and Italy, [] and more than , coming from Eastern Europe, [] mainly Romania and Poland over , each.

On the establishment of the state, a top priority was given to a policy for the "ingathering of exiles", and the Mossad LeAliyah Bet gave key assistance to the Jewish Agency to organize immigrants from Europe and the Middle East, and arrange for their transport to Israel.

For Ben-Gurion, a fundamental defect of the State was that 'it lacked Jews'. Jewish immigrants from Arab and Muslim countries left for numerous reasons.

The war's outcome had exacerbated Arab hostilities to local Jewish communities. News of the victory aroused messianic expectations in Libya and Yemen; Zionism had taken root in many countries; active incentives for making aliyah formed a key part of Israeli policy; and better economic prospects and security were to be expected from a Jewish state.

Some Arab governments, Egypt, for example, held their Jewish communities hostage at times. Persecution, political instability, and news of a number of violent pogroms also played a role.

Some ,—1,, Jews eventually left the Arab world over the next three decades as a result of these various factors. Israel initially relied on Jewish Agency -run tent camps known as immigrant camps to accommodate displaced Jews from Europe and several Muslim-majority states.

In the s, these were transformed into transition camps "Ma'abarot" , where living conditions were improved and tents were replaced with tin dwellings.

Unlike the situation in the immigrant camps, when the Jewish Agency provided for immigrants, residents of the transition camps were required to provide for themselves.

These camps began to decline in , with the last one closing in The camps were largely transformed into permanent settlements known as development towns , while others were absorbed as neighborhoods of the towns they were attached to, and the residents were given permanent housing in these towns and neighborhoods.

Most development towns eventually grew into cities. Some Jewish immigrants were also given the vacant homes of Palestinian refugees. There were also attempts to settle Jewish refugees from Arab and Muslim countries in moshavim cooperative farming villages , though these efforts were only partially successful, as they had historically been craftsmen and merchants in their home countries, and did not traditionally engage in farm work.

After the war, Israeli and Palestinian historiographies differed on the interpretation of the events of [] in the West the majority view was of a tiny group of vastly outnumbered and ill-equipped Jews fighting off the massed strength of the invading Arab armies; it was also widely believed that the Palestinian Arabs left their homes on the instruction of their leaders.

From , with the opening of the Israeli and British archives, some Israeli historians have developed a different account of the period.

In particular, the role played by Abdullah I of Jordan , the British government, the Arab aims during the war, the balance of force and the events related to the Palestinian exodus have been nuanced or given new interpretations.

The film Cast a Giant Shadow tells the story of an American colonel who was instrumental in the Israeli victory. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

First Arab-Israeli war. Further information: All-Palestine Government. Further information: Israeli Declaration of Independence.

Further information: Operation Pleshet. Further information: Battles of Latrun Further information: Battle for Jerusalem.

Further information: Battle of Jenin Further information: Battles of the Kinarot Valley. Further information: Battles of Negba.

Further information: Battle of Be'erot Yitzhak. Further information: Operation Kedem. Further information: Operation Dekel. Further information: Folke Bernadotte.

Main article: Operation Shoter. Further information: Operation Hiram. Main article: Armistice Agreements. Area assigned for a Jewish state.

Area assigned for an Arab state. Planned Corpus separatum with the intention that Jerusalem would be neither Jewish nor Arab.

Israeli controlled territory from Egyptian and Jordanian controlled territory from until Main articles: Israeli casualties of war and Palestinian casualties of war.

See also: Killings and massacres during the Palestine war. Main articles: Palestinian exodus and Causes of the Palestinian exodus.

Main article: Jewish exodus from Arab countries. See also: New Historians. Retrieved 5 October Journal of Palestine Studies.

Garfinkle Yale University Press. The Syrian and the Lebanese armies engaged in a token effort but did not stage a major attack on the Jewish state.

My predilection would be to opt for the loose contemporary British formula, that of 'between , and ,' refugees; but, if pressed, , is probably a fair estimate" ; — Memo US Department of State, 4 May , FRUS, , p.

Columbia University Press, , p. Future government of Palestine. Retrieved 13 July At the time, Ben-Gurion and the HGS believed that they had initiated a one-shot affair, albeit with the implication of a change of tactics and strategy on the Jerusalem front.

In fact, they had set in motion a strategic transformation of Haganah policy. Nahshon heralded a shift from the defensive to the offensive and marked the beginning of the implementation of tochnit dalet Plan D — without Ben-Gurion or the HGS ever taking an in principle decision to embark on its implementation.

American Public Television. Palestine Studies 18 1 , pp. Congress 60 Retrieved 29 June Kurzman, "Genesis ", , p.

The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine. Archived from the original on 7 January The Middle East Quarterly.

Columbia University Press. Walid Khalidi trans. Journal of Palestine studies, Vol. Archived from the original PDF on 28 September Intelligence and National Security.

Middle Eastern Studies. Israel's Wars: A History since Arabic edition translated by Samir Jabbour. Institute of Palestine Studies, Beirut, Archived from the original on 6 April Retrieved 20 April Kurzman, 'Genesis ', , p.

Pappe, "The ethnic cleansing of Palestine", , p. A History of Iraq. Cambridge University Press. Rogan, Avi Shlaim, chapter at pp.

Retrieved 14 July King Abdullah had always acknowledged Arab as distinct from Jordanian weakness, and his son, Prince Talal, openly predicted defeat.

Egypt's foreign minister, Khashaba, had already done so. He 'wished they would remain, and suggested that it was their duty to do so.

Ralph J. Archived from the original on 12 December Sussex Academic Press. A war between Israel and the Arab States broke out immediately, and the Arab armies invaded Palestine.

Volume 2, , p. Retrieved 26 June David Tal. The destruction of the synagogue shook Jewish morale. Military Book Club. Institute for Palestine Studies.

Archived from the original on 3 March John Hayles, aeroflight. Archived from the original on 22 February Retrieved 18 January BBC Books.

Retrieved 22 February Another truce violation occurred through the refusal of Egyptian forces to permit the passage of relief convoys to Jewish settlements in the Negeb The third violation of the truce arose as a result of the failure of the Transjordan and Iraqi forces to permit the flow of water to Jerusalem.

New York. The villagers were so poor, so miserable, that they didn't even have weapons The flight of these residents began when we started to clean up the routes used by those accompanying the convoys.

Then we began to expel them, and in the end they fled on their own. The fall of Lydda. Journal of Palestine Studies , Vol.

The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem, — Ilan, Bernadotte in Palestine , Macmillan, p. The New York Times. Retrieved 28 December Shamir, nearly 80, still speaks elliptically about the Bernadotte assassination.

Years later, when Ben-Gurion moved to a kibbutz in the Negev desert, Sdeh Bokker, one of his closest friends there was Yehoshua Cohen, who had been one of the assassins.

Review of Kati Marton's biography. In recent years, several members of the group known by the British as the Stern Gang have acknowledged responsibility for the killing.

Shamir, who was a member of the Stern Gang, has declined to discuss the killing, and one of his spokesman has said he had no role in it.

Archived from the original on 24 June The villages repeatedly fired at Israeli traffic along the coast road and were supplied by the Iraqis from northern Samaria.

The aim was 'to gain control' of the coast road between Zikhron Yaakov and Haifa 'and to destroy all the enemy in the area.

Most of the inhabitants fled before and during the attack, reaching northern Samaria; hundreds of others were forcibly expelled during the following days.

Zed Books. If the front lines of 14 October were to turn into permanent borders, Israel would be truncated and extremely vulnerable.

Moreover, the no-peace, no-war situation was untenable. Rudi Weissenstein: Israel Early Photographs. Modan Publishing House. Doubleday Religious Publishing Group.

Archived from the original on 14 April Archived from the original on 9 January Retrieved 11 January Carl Brown , p. Archived from the original on 3 November How Long O Lord?

Cowley Publications. Ben-Gurion: Father of Modern Israel. Ben Gurion He also did not flinch from provoking the United Nations by breaking the truce agreement.

But the limit of his fearlessness was a clash with a Western power. Vainly, the right and Mapam accused him of defeatism. He did not flinch from confronting them but chose to maintain good relations with the United States, which he perceived as a potential ally of the new state, and also not to provoke the British lion, even though its fangs had been drawn.

At the end of the war, when Yigal Allon, who represented the younger generation of commanders that had grown up in the war, demanded the conquest of the West Bank up to the Jordan River as the natural, defensible border of the state, Ben-Gurion refused.

He recognized that the IDF was militarily strong enough to carry out the conquest, but he believed that the young state should not bite off more than it had already chewed.

There was a limit to what the world was prepared to accept. Furthermore, the armistice borders — which later became known as the Green Line — were better than those he had dreamed of at the beginning of the war.

In Ben-Gurion's opinion, in terms of territory Israel was satisfied. It was time to send the troops home and start work on building the new nation.

The clearest expression of this 'activist' approach is found in a "personal, top secret" letter sent by Yigal Allon to BG shortly after Rewriting the History of by Eugene L.

Rogan and Avi Shlaim. Retrieved 8 August Archived 11 August Archived from the original on 6 June University of Oklahoma Press.

In order to highlight the plight of the refugees and to put pressure on Israel to admit responsibility for them, Arab countries except Transjordan have denied citizenship rights to the Palestinians in their midst; in so doing, they claimed they were serving the interests of the Palestinians and supporting their right of return.

Mideast Web. Archived from the original on 9 October Retrieved 1 April Israel Central Bureau of Statistics.

Archived from the original on 30 September Retrieved 7 August Holocaust Museum. The First Israelis , Owl Books, , p.

Archived from the original on 17 January Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Retrieved 10 December Adrian, Nathan Britain, Israel and Anglo-Jewry — Routledge Bickerton, Ian and Hill, Maria Grove Press.

Transaction Publishers. Israel's Wars: A History Since London: Routledge. Roger The Oxford History of the British Empire.

Oxford: Oxford University Press. The Prize and Price of Zion. Cassel, Moshe Dayan. O Jerusalem! Palestine Israel: The Way it was.

Associated University Presses. Gilbert, Martin Israel: A History. Black Swan. Documents on Israeli Soviet Relations, — Congress 60 Kaniuk, Yoram Commander of the Exodus.

In Philip Mattar ed. Encyclopedia of the Palestinians, Infobase Publishing. Introduction to Geopolitics, Routledge Heller, Joseph.

Harvard University Press. Israeli Units Since Osprey Publishing. The War for Palestine pp. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Boston, MA: Beacon Press. All that remains. Military Preparations of the Arab Community in Palestine: — Cassels, Vintage Books. SUNY Press.

Arabs at War: Military Effectiveness, — Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. Richelson, Jeffrey T. The War for Palestine: Rewriting the History of The War for Palestine.

Universal Publishers. Avraham Sela. New York: Continuum , Shapira, Anita Land and Power: Zionist Resort to Force, — Oxford University Press.

Stearns general editor , Houghton Mifflin Company , at Bartleby. Tripp, Charles. Israeli wars and conflicts. Arab—Israeli conflict. Countries Authorities Organizations.

European Union United Nations. Soviet Union United Arab Republic. Armed engagements. Diplomacy and peace proposals.

Anti-Jewish attacks in Arab countries during the Palestine war and its aftermath. Bari 49 69 15 48 14 Cagliari 36 87 33 53 77 Firenze 77 55 73 50 81 Genova 22 28 16 23 12 Milano 59 62 80 27 74 Napoli 52 47 18 53 89 Palermo 70 64 56 29 24 Roma 15 52 29 67 30 Torino 54 38 27 51 39 Venezia 43 86 28 69 75 Estrazione n.

Bari 58 69 36 13 81 Cagliari 32 3 52 2 25 Firenze 63 69 31 64 8 Genova 50 3 87 31 20 Milano 54 31 70 10 4 Napoli 70 59 38 76 73 Palermo 48 46 40 29 73 Roma 40 46 24 21 83 Torino 11 53 56 80 35 Venezia 66 50 22 9 48 Estrazione n.

Bari 25 53 18 33 12 Cagliari 39 55 62 76 49 Firenze 11 82 24 7 70 Genova 71 62 41 89 46 Milano 81 82 59 60 10 Napoli 49 15 10 47 6 Palermo 80 32 87 27 55 Roma 40 30 83 1 52 Torino 30 47 38 59 22 Venezia 79 76 31 90 29 Estrazione n.

Bari 84 30 50 78 71 Cagliari 7 87 13 47 76 Firenze 74 15 1 32 36 Genova 30 56 14 76 69 Milano 67 69 22 15 25 Napoli 44 30 18 25 79 Palermo 23 71 68 28 61 Roma 63 49 54 88 62 Torino 7 68 53 72 1 Venezia 76 53 83 18 75 Estrazione n.

Bari 7 33 85 79 46 Cagliari 68 53 75 80 71 Firenze 62 73 40 88 64 Genova 76 45 70 42 2 Milano 39 33 61 83 12 Napoli 59 74 21 36 45 Palermo 71 13 49 53 20 Roma 41 69 58 22 9 Torino 24 40 42 57 78 Venezia 22 9 62 83 8 Estrazione n.

Bari 67 80 21 17 18 Cagliari 82 69 6 43 17 Firenze 76 82 67 81 72 Genova 2 4 74 33 72 Milano 45 34 23 17 20 Napoli 29 62 72 40 63 Palermo 77 56 68 34 69 Roma 57 1 6 84 70 Torino 50 59 15 55 42 Venezia 27 60 64 74 40 Estrazione n.

Bari 47 31 24 72 79 Cagliari 57 69 11 48 52 Firenze 53 56 12 19 63 Genova 88 39 76 36 26 Milano 12 63 72 68 14 Napoli 3 86 51 70 80 Palermo 11 3 27 4 2 Roma 69 43 14 23 7 Torino 66 44 69 17 37 Venezia 25 12 49 62 4 Estrazione n.

Bari 59 78 81 62 71 Cagliari 43 33 35 13 34 Firenze 28 80 17 43 68 Genova 79 73 42 52 8 Milano 43 85 20 70 35 Napoli 78 13 56 65 11 Palermo 55 75 32 56 66 Roma 46 85 12 1 41 Torino 21 20 11 84 67 Venezia 8 77 62 3 40 Estrazione n.

Bari 65 23 54 42 44 Cagliari 41 62 52 69 11 Firenze 84 1 66 10 65 Genova 45 20 89 83 85 Milano 24 76 2 59 55 Napoli 20 24 79 87 73 Palermo 11 64 47 27 24 Roma 4 78 59 48 43 Torino 14 21 59 28 29 Venezia 26 10 59 8 83 Estrazione n.

Bari 81 64 66 79 84 Cagliari 40 89 39 23 55 Firenze 61 67 87 48 63 Genova 50 6 14 86 83 Milano 7 64 46 55 44 Napoli 28 5 67 10 57 Palermo 39 62 43 79 47 Roma 64 49 74 83 76 Torino 31 9 72 55 11 Venezia 58 89 83 47 4 Estrazione n.

Bari 83 70 89 67 37 Cagliari 76 38 78 15 49 Firenze 39 12 20 79 35 Genova 11 1 29 57 37 Milano 38 71 26 40 60 Napoli 38 61 33 53 65 Palermo 33 7 31 66 10 Roma 24 70 64 77 14 Torino 13 46 68 69 53 Venezia 39 70 79 83 59 Estrazione n.

Bari 46 81 76 35 31 Cagliari 25 59 32 35 17 Firenze 80 35 6 72 48 Genova 79 55 76 65 56 Milano 3 54 45 86 18 Napoli 40 81 69 22 44 Palermo 7 2 21 64 83 Roma 62 39 64 33 23 Torino 81 65 53 17 20 Venezia 78 47 37 83 48 Estrazione n.

Bari 32 59 40 12 53 Cagliari 75 77 14 53 40 Firenze 31 61 40 75 85 Genova 16 20 9 30 14 Milano 77 14 54 47 26 Napoli 76 69 68 71 44 Palermo 71 78 4 13 84 Roma 77 17 81 18 25 Torino 35 12 31 53 44 Venezia 16 86 55 81 43 Estrazione n.

Bari 37 35 68 11 1 Cagliari 24 44 72 47 74 Firenze 73 23 8 89 78 Genova 55 34 38 35 41 Milano 32 89 81 14 42 Napoli 51 50 9 78 74 Palermo 67 89 18 1 25 Roma 41 19 10 83 21 Torino 48 55 27 17 71 Venezia 41 48 30 82 62 Estrazione n.

Bari 75 5 18 53 30 Cagliari 40 2 10 1 8 Firenze 39 84 28 12 19 Genova 62 6 87 50 90 Milano 71 59 88 27 14 Napoli 40 21 41 78 31 Palermo 2 11 76 75 56 Roma 16 83 23 10 32 Torino 88 71 77 37 56 Venezia 31 24 14 10 77 Estrazione n.

Bari 67 75 43 17 22 Cagliari 85 48 72 18 68 Firenze 17 16 12 10 27 Genova 34 75 40 76 68 Milano 23 54 65 4 5 Napoli 49 63 57 47 71 Palermo 14 67 85 66 81 Roma 12 5 33 21 38 Torino 36 84 16 74 10 Venezia 63 87 59 72 29 Estrazione n.

Bari 78 26 49 22 3 Cagliari 69 50 89 4 21 Firenze 7 11 44 84 76 Genova 26 23 79 83 85 Milano 13 62 15 22 90 Napoli 36 86 34 1 75 Palermo 86 33 34 72 5 Roma 13 79 67 1 57 Torino 66 89 49 68 38 Venezia 17 9 71 62 51 Estrazione n.

Bari 8 89 54 78 56 Cagliari 27 74 20 8 22 Firenze 2 17 69 70 11 Genova 6 65 19 33 11 Milano 74 47 45 43 3 Napoli 1 72 40 65 21 Palermo 40 6 57 43 23 Roma 42 72 86 11 2 Torino 43 88 15 52 80 Venezia 20 77 65 13 34 Estrazione n.

Bari 12 2 52 31 79 Cagliari 21 70 2 44 38 Firenze 45 11 12 33 70 Genova 26 63 31 73 87 Milano 89 67 63 82 65 Napoli 32 68 53 54 56 Palermo 17 72 34 78 2 Roma 45 39 47 75 64 Torino 7 40 87 33 37 Venezia 74 89 21 23 41 Estrazione n.

Verfassungskonvent auf der Https://klubbneat.se/home-serien-stream/miley-cyrus.php Herrenchiemsee zur vorbereitenden Beratung source Grundgesetzes. Jahreschronik Beginn der "kleinen" Berlin-Blockade : Die sowjetische Besatzungsmacht verhindert click at this page Militärtransporte nach Berlin. Auflösung here Zonenbeirats in der britischen und des Länderrats in der amerikanischen Besatzungszone. Jahrhundert Martin Niemöller wird zum Vorsitzenden des am

1948 Video

DINKY Restoration No.410 Tipper Truck 1948 Die drei westalliierten Militärgouverneure übergeben die "Frankfurter Dokumente" an die Regierungschefs der elf Länder bГјste ihren Besatzungszonen. Einen weiteren Krisenherd bildet der Nahe Osten, wo der UN-Teilungsplan für 1948 vom Vorjahr die jüdisch-arabischen Spannungen nicht beilegen konnte; sie entladen sich stattdessen im Palästinakriegals das britische Mandat endet und Israel seine Unabhängigkeit ausruft. Chinesischer Kalender. Später werden auch zivile Here und Güter nicht mehr durchgelassen. Finnigan jennifer der Zeitschrift "Stern" in Hannover. Er übersetzt sie für eine Veröffentlichung in den USA. Kategorien : Jahr

1948 Video

The 20th Academy Awards in 1948

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